1. National Geological Monuments
UPSC Syllabus: Mains: GS Paper I, III: Art and culture, Geography, ecology and environment
Sub Theme: Geo-tourism | UPSC
Context: Geological survey of India has identified certain geological sites in North-east for geo-tourism.
12 new locations to be added in the existing 32 approved Geo-tourism or geo-heritage site
The Geological Survey of India (GSI) was set up in 1851 primarily to find coal deposits for the Railways.
Functions of GSI:
- Creation and updation of national geoscientific information and mineral resource assessment.
- Conducting ground surveys, air-borne and marine surveys, mineral prospecting and investigations, multi-disciplinary geoscientific, geo-technical, geo-environmental and natural hazards studies, glaciology, seismotectonic study, and carrying out fundamental research.
Ministry: Ministry of Mines
Unakoti Hill Site: An ancient Shaivite place of worship with huge rock reliefs celebrating Shiva. It is the prime tourist spot of Unakoti District, Tripura.
|S. No||Geological heritage site / National geological monument|
|1||Volcanogenic bedded Barytes, Mangampeta, Cuddapah Dist. ANDHRA PRADESH|
|2||Eparchaean Unconformity, Chittor Dist. ANDHRA PRADESH|
|3||Natural Geological Arch, Tirumala Hills, Chittor Dist. ANDHRA PRADESH|
|4||Erra Matti Dibbalu- the dissected and stabilized coastal red sediment mounds located between Vishakhapatnam and Bhimunipatnam. ANDHRA PRADESH|
|5||Laterite near Angadipuram PWD rest house premises, Malapuram Dist. (KL)|
|6||Varkala Cliff Section, Thiruvanatapuram Dist. (KL)|
|7||Fossil wood near Tiruvakkarai, South Arcot Dist. TAMILNADU|
|8||National fossil wood park, Sattanur, Tiruchirappalli Dist. TAMILNADU|
|9||Charnockite, St. Thomas Mount, Madras. TAMILNADU|
|10||Badlands of Karai Formation with Cretaceous fossils along Karai – Kulakkalnattam Section, Perambalur District. TAMILNADU|
|11||Sedimentary Structures – Eddy Markings, Kadan Dam, Panch Mahals Dist. GUJARAT|
|12||Sendra Granite, Pali Dist. RAJASTHAN|
|13||Barr Conglomerate, Pali Dist. RAJASTHAN|
|14||Stromatolite Fossil Park, Jharmarkotra Rock Phosphate deposit, Udaipur Dist. RAJASTHAN|
|15||Gossan in Rajpura Dariba Mineralised belt, Udaipur Dist. RAJASTHAN|
|16||Stromatolite Park near Bhojunda, Chittaurgarh Dist. RAJASTHAN|
|17||Akal Fossil Wood Park, Jaisalmer Dist. RAJASTHAN|
|S. No||Geological heritage site /
National geological monument
|18||Kishangarh Nepheline Syenite, Ajmer Dist. Rajasthan|
|19||Welded Tuff, Jodhpur Dist. Rajasthan|
|20||Jodhpur Group – Malani Igneous Suite Contact, Jodhpur Dist. Rajasthan|
|21||Great Boundary Fault at Satur, Bundi Dist. Rajasthan|
|22||Lonar Lake, Buldana Dist. MAHARASHTRA|
|22||Lower Permian Marine bed at Manendragarh, Surguja Dist. CHATTISGARH|
|24||Columnar Lava, St Mary Island Udupi Dist. KARNATAKA|
|25||Pillow lavas near Mardihalli, Chitradurga Dist. KARNATAKA|
|26||Peninsular Gneiss, Lalbagh, Banglore, KARNATAKA|
|27||Pyroclastics & Pillow lavas, Kolar Gold fields, Kolar Dist. KARNATAKA|
|28||Siwalik Fossil Park, Saketi, Sirmur dt., HIMACHAL PRADESH|
|29||Pillow Lava in iron ore belt at Nomira, Keonjhar dist. ODISHA|
|30||Plant Fossil bearing Inter trappean beds of Rajmahal Formation, upper Gondwana sequence around Mandro, Sahibganj dist. JHARKHAND|
|31||Nagahill Ophiolite Site near Pungro, NAGALAND|
|32||Stromatolite bearing Dolomite / Limestone of Buxa Formation at Mamley, near Namchi, South district. SIKKIM|
2. Smart health cards of Odisha
UPSC Syllabus: Mains – GS II: Indian health system
Theme: State level schemes | UPSC
Context: Biju Swasthya Kalyan Yojana launched by CM of Odisha for treatment in hospitals upto 5 lakh rupees.
- Treatment reimbursement up to 5 lakh rupees per annum.
- Treatment can be availed in 200 hospitals across the nation.
- Upto 10 Lakh to women for treatment.
- It is a no-frill system: no cash is required.
- It will cover about 3.5 crore people.
3. Geography of Palm oil
UPSC Syllabus: Mains GS I, III; important food and non-food crops
Sub Theme: Palm oil | UPSC
- 11040 crore, Union government’s National Mission on Edible
- Oils-Oil Palm (NMEOOP),
- To maximise cultivation and production of Palm oil
- Kerala state is the most potential state from the perspective of Palm oil
- Wayanad and Palakkad districts could be major producing districts
Why Kerala is important site?
- Oil palm is humid tropical crop.
- Rainfall: 150 cm or above
- Temperature range: 22-32 degree Celsius
- Other needs: 5-6 hours of bright sunlight, 80% or more of humidity, soil with high organic matter.
Kerala has moist and humid climate along with very dense vegetation to support organic soil matter.
Being tropical in its location and past history of plantation, Kerala can support easy shift towards palm oil cultivation and production.