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Indo-Japan | UPSC

UPSC Current Affairs for UPSC IAS

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UPSC Current Affairs:
 The rising sun in India-Japan relations| Page 06

UPSC Syllabus: Mains – GS Paper II- International Relations.

Context: Committee on Cotton Production and Consumption expects India’s cotton production to fall from 365 lakh bales last year to 360 lakh bales this year.

During 1950-51, actual production was only 30 lakh bales.

All about cotton in India:

  • At 18% of the total, India is the largest producer of Cotton crop in the world.
  • Cotton is the crop of tropical and sub-tropical areas and requires uniformly high temperature varying between 21°C and 30°C. The growth of cotton is retarded when the temperature falls below 20°C. Frost is enemy number one of the cotton plant and it is grown in areas having at least 210 frost free days in a year.
  • It is a Kharif crop generally. In Tamil Nadu, it is grown both as a kharif and as a rabi crop.
  • Water requirement annually is of 50- 100 cm.
  • Only, 1/3rd of the cotton producing area is irrigated.
  • About 80 per cent of the total irrigated area under cotton is in Maharashtra (29%), Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat and Rajasthan.
  • It requires 6 to 8 months to mature.
  • Cotton cultivation is closely related to deep black soils (regur) of the Deccan and the Malwa Plateaus and those of Gujarat. As, the black soil is good in holding the moisture and also provide good clay and mineral content required by the plant.


UPSC Current Affairs: Scheme for revision

UPSC Syllabus: Mains – GS Paper III – Indian Economy and Health

Sub Theme:  Ayushman Bharat | UPSC

Objective: to achieve the vision of Universal Health Coverage.

It comprises of two inter-related components

Health and Wellness Centre – National Health Policy, 2017 envisioned Health and Wellness Centres as the foundation of India’s health system. Under this, 1.5 lakh centres will bring health care system closer to the homes of people. The centres will provide comprehensive health care, including for non-communicable diseases and maternal and child health services. These will also provide free essential drugs and diagnostic services. Contributions through CSR and philanthropic institutions in adopting these centres are also envisaged. First ‘health and wellness centre’ has been inaugurated in Bijapur district in Chhattisgarh.

Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY) – It aims to reduce out of pocket hospitalization expenses by providing health insurance coverage upto Rs.5 lakh/family/year for secondary and tertiary care hospitalization. The scheme will integrate two ongoing centrally sponsored schemes Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) and Senior Citizen Health Insurance Scheme (SCHIS).

A beneficiary covered under the scheme will be allowed to take cashless benefits from any public/private empaneled hospitals across the country.

Coverage – The scheme will aim to target over 10 Crore families based on SECC (Socio-Economic Caste Census) database. Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojna (RSBY) beneficiaries in state where it is active is also included. To ensure that nobody from the vulnerable group is left out of the benefit cover, there will be no cap on family size and age in the scheme. The insurance scheme will cover pre- and post-hospitalization expenses. All pre-existing diseases are also covered. It will also pay defined transport allowance per hospitalization to the beneficiary.

Funding – The expenditure incurred in premium payment will be shared between central and state governments in a specified ratio

  1. 60:40 for all states and UTs with their own legislature.
  2. 90:10 in NE states and the Himalayan states of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand and union territory of Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh.
  3. 100% central funding for UTs without legislature.

The State governments have the main responsibility of health service delivery.

States will be allowed to expand the scheme both horizontally and vertically.

Mode of funding –

In a trust model, bills are reimbursed directly by the government.

In an insurance model, the government pays a fixed premium to an insurance company, which pays the hospitals.

The scheme is creating a cadre of certified frontline health service professionals called Pradhan Mantri Aarogya Mitras (PMAMs). PMAM will be primary point of facilitation for the beneficiaries to avail treatment at the hospital and thus, act as a support system to streamline health service delivery.  Besides, 24 new Government Medical Colleges and Hospitals will be set up, by up-grading existing district hospitals in the country. This would ensure that there is at least 1 Medical College for every 3 Parliamentary Constituencies.

Also, at least 1 Government Medical College in each State of the country.


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