Causes of Elephant-human conflict | Habitat Management Activities | UPSC    

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UPSC Syllabus: Prelims: Environment | GS Paper III – Environment

  • Wild Asian Elephants are found in 13 countries.
  • Largest number of wild Asian Elephants.
  • Since 1986, the Asian elephant has been listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List

Causes of Human Elephant Conflict:-

  • Loss of natural habitat
  • Availability of food and water bodies
  • Fragmentation
  • Encroachment of forest land for agriculture and related activities


Habitat Management Activities

  • Development and maintenance of perennial water bodies
  • Creation of fodder plantation
  • Fire management for reducing HEC
  • Collection of grass seeds
  • Grassland Management
  • Vayal Management
  • Wattle Management
  • Weed Management
  • Management of invasive specie

Restricting elephants in their natural habitat

  • Elephant proof trenches
  • Hanging Fences
  • Rubble wall
  • Solar powered fence
  • Bee-Hive Fence
  • Rail Fence
  • Bio Fence
  • Chilly Fence

Habitat Improvement Activities

  • Bamboo planting/re-stocking
  • Intensive soil working

Monitoring of the elephants

  • Radio Collar
  • Drones
  • Watch Tower Monitoring

Strengthening the elephant corridor

  • Relocation of villages
  • Securing elephant corridors


UPSC Current Affairs: Small Finance Banks & Payments Bank | Page – 14

UPSC Syllabus: Prelims: Economy | GS Paper III – Economy

Sub Theme: | Payment Banks | Small Finance Banks | UPSC

Differentiated Banks

Banking institutions licensed by the RBI to provide specific banking services and products. A differentiated license will allow a bank to offer products only in select areas. Main aim is to promote financial inclusion and payments. Differentiated banks licensing was launched in 2015. The differentiated banks are of two types namely payment banks and small finance banks.

Criteria Payment Banks Small Finance Banks
Registration and Licensing Registered under Companies Act, 2013

Licensed under Banking Regulation Act, 1949

Registered under Companies Act, 2013

Licensed under Banking Regulation Act, 1949

Eligibility Pre-paid Payment Instrument (PPI) Providers, Resident individuals; NBFCs; Telecom Companies, super-market chains, public sector entities etc. Resident Indians, Private Companies, Societies, NBFCs, MFIs, Local Area Banks
Min. Capital Requirements Rs 100 crores Rs 100 crores. (To be increased to Rs 200 crores within 5 years)
FDI allowed? Yes. Up to 74% Yes. Up to 74%
Accept Deposits Only Demand Deposits. No Fixed Deposits and NRI Deposits Yes.
Restrictions on Deposits Up to Rs 1 Lakhs No Restrictions
Deposit Insurance Available? Yes Yes
Can Lend Loans No Yes. At least 50 per cent of its loan portfolio should constitute loans and advances of up to Rs 25 lakh
Issue Debit/Credit Card Only Debit Card. No Credit Card Both can be issued
Set up based upon recommendations of Nachiket Mor Committee Nachiket Mor Committee
Committee to evaluate applications for License Nachiket Mor Committee Usha Thorat Committee
SLR and CRR applicable CRR Applicable; SLR: 75% of NDTL CRR and SLR Applicable
BASEL Norms applicable Yes. 15% of RWAs Yes. 15% of RWAs
PSL Norms applicable No. Can’t lend Loans Yes. Target: 75%.
Examples Airtel, India Posts Payment Bank, Paytm, FINO etc. Ujjivan, Utkarsh, Jana, Au etc.

On-Tap Licensing of Small Finance banks (SFBs)

An ‘on-tap’ facility would mean the RBI would accept applications and grant license for Small Finance Banks (SFBs) throughout the year. The policy allows aspirants to apply for small finance bank license at any time, subject to the fulfillment of the conditions laid down by the RBI.

India Post Payments Bank (IPPB)

  • Public sector company under the department of posts, Ministry of communication with 100% equity of the government of India, and regulated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).Instead of Debit cards, IPPB issues Quick Response (QR) cards.
  • It provides a unique, secure and convenient way to access one’s account without the need to remember PIN/Password.
  • A transaction can be initiated by scanning the QR code followed by OTP authentication and verification by an OVD (Officially Valid Document).



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